Chapter 4


Ethics refers to the principles of right and wrong that individuals acting as free moral agents use to make choices to guide their behaviors.

  • IT creates opportunities for social change but threatens distribution of power, money, rights and obligations.
  • IT can be used to create crimes, and affects social values.


Example  employee with IT can easily sell their company information to competitor


How does information technology threaten property rights and therefore affect business

  • Digital media different from physical media in term of Ease of replication and  ease of transmission through (networks, the Internet)
  • Difficulty in classifying software as program or book make easy theft.
  • Compactness is  a property that generalizes the notion of a subset of Euclidean space being closed (that is, containing all its limit points) and bounded (that is, having all its points lie within some fixed distance of each other).
  • Difficulties in establishing uniqueness  For example individuals have been illegally copying and distributing digitized MP3 music files on the Internet for a number of years up till the opening of iTunes store and other legitimate music on-line stores which caused a decline in the illegal copying of music.
  • Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) provides some copyright protection. The DMCA implemented a World Intellectual Property Organization Treaty that makes it illegal to circumvent technology- based protections of copyrighted materials.


  • Example:Individuals illegal copy MB3 music ,APP ITunes store pay for music and entertainment which is difficult to copy unless play it with apple device and Amazon protect the right of their writer (Books can’t be copy)

Nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA) technology? What is the purpose

NORA technology can take information about people from disparate sources and find obscure, nonobvious relationships. Applications of this technology include  to identify:

  • Terrorist
  • Casino fraud
  • Money transfer fraud

Example :

Applicant apply for a job , From his phone number the manager find ( he have criminal issue )



What are the five (5) moral dimensions related to IT? Relate these dimensions to ethical issues and provide example(s) for each.

  • Information rights and obligations. What information rights do individuals and organizations possess with respect to themselves? What can they protect? Example; privacy in the work place, a lot of organizations do not offer their staff any privacy while they are in the work place and cameras and surveillance are scattered around the office.
  • Property rights and obligations. How will traditional intellectual property rights be protected in a digital society in which tracing and accounting for ownership is difficult and ignoring such property rights is so easy? Example; software copyrights
  • Accountability and control. Who can and will be held accountable and liable for the harm done to individual and collective information and property rights? Example; failure in the ATM System will result in dissatisfied customs that were harmed due to not being able to access their funds in a certain time, the bank IT department and the software developers need to held accountable if proven that the failure was due to technical issue that they should have been aware of.
  • System quality. What standards of data and system quality should we demand to protect individual rights and the safety of society? Example; software companies try to debug their products before releasing them to the marketplace, they knowingly ship buggy products because the time and cost of fixing all minor errors would prevent these products from ever being released.
  • Quality of life. What values should be preserved in an information- and knowledge-based society? Which institutions should we protect from violation? Which cultural values and practices are supported by the new information technology? Example; Computer abuse is the commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but that are considered unethical. The popularity of the Internet and e-mail has turned one form of computer abuse spamming into a serious problem for both individuals and businesses.


  • What does it mean by quality of life as the use of smartphones become pervasive? Explain and provide example(s).

The negative social costs of introducing information technologies and systems are beginning to mount along with the power of the technology. Many of these negative social consequences are not violations of individual rights or property crimes. Nevertheless, these negative consequences can be extremely harmful to individuals, societies, and political institutions. Computers and information technologies potentially can destroy valuable elements of our culture and society even while they bring us benefits. For example; how to maintain boundaries when it comes to family, work and leisure. Also the high dependency on IS now days in schools, governments and almost everywhere and for that they are highly vulnerable if these systems fail. And finally, how fast technology is changing.


What are sources of poor system quality? Explain.

Three principal sources of poor system performance are (1) software bugs and errors, as there is a technological barrier to perfect software, and users must be aware of the potential for catastrophic failure. For example bugs and errors on mobile software’s such as Apple. (2) Hardware or facility failures caused by natural or other causes such as earthquakes or floods (3) poor input data quality, which is the most common source of business system failure.




Refereences :






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