1. What are IT infrastructure components?

IT infrastructure is composed of seven major components

  1. Computer hardware platforms include client machines and server machines, as well as modern mainframes produced by IBM. Blade servers  are ultrathin servers, intended for a single dedicated application, and are mounted in space-saving racks.
  2. Operating system platforms include platforms for client computers, dominated by Windows operating systems, and servers, dominated by the various forms of the Unix operating system or Linux. Operation systemare software that manage the resources and activities of the computer and act as an interface for the user.
  3. Enterprise and other software applications include SAP, Oracle, and PeopleSoft, and middleware  software that are used to link a firm’s existing application systems.
  4. Data management and storage is handled by database management software and storage devices include traditional storage methods, such as disk arrays and tape libraries, and newer network-based storage technologies such ass storage area networks . SANs connect multiple storage devices on dedicated high-speed networks.
  5. Networking and telecommunications platforms include Windows server operating systems, Novell, Linux, and UNIX. Nearly all LAN and many wide area networks (WANs) use the TCP/IP standards for networking.
  6. Internet platforms overlap with, and must relate to, the firm’s general networking infrastructure and hardware and software platforms. Internet-related infrastructure includes the hardware, software and services to maintain corporate Web sites, intranets, and extranets, including Web hosting services and Web software application development tools. A Web hosting service  maintains a large Web server, or series of servers, and provides fee-paying subscribers with space to maintain their Web sites.
  7. Consulting and system integration services are relied on for integrating a firm’s Legacy system  with new technology and infrastructure and providing expertise in implementing new infrastructure along with relevant changes in business processes, training, and software integration. Legacy systems are generally older transaction processing systems created for mainframe computers that continue to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or redesigning them

2. Explain the meaning of consumerization of IT. Provide an example

Consumerization of IT (“consumerization”) is a phrase used to describe the cycle of information technology (IT)  emerging in the consumer market, then spreading to business and government organizations, largely because employees are using the popular “consumer market” technologies and devices at home and then introducing them in the workplace.

consumerization of IT example

  • use of personal consumer electronica  at work — like Iphone and tablet PCs
  • Online service (onlibe data storage , Web-based email services , and social media or social network sites like Facebook and Twitter).

Consumerization of IT is driven by employees who buy their own devices, use their own personal online service accounts, install their own applications and then connect to the corporate network with the device, often without the organization’s knowledge or approval.

3.Explain the meaning of virtualization and its purpose


  1. Better utilization of hardware resources

by assign more than one application to it. For instance, I have often run four different applications running under different OSes, assigning them to a single processor we may find a huge unutilized capacity. Since its creates a pool, we can assign desired resources to each application.

  2. Minimum physical space required:

Since we utilize fewer servers the space requirement in the data center comes down drastically if servers are stacked in a rack.

  1. Lower power consumption:

Since we use fewer servers, the  consumption of power would be low, despite the processors being loaded fully. That reduces the amount of heat generated by servers, and correspondingly. In one of our recent implementations, we proved that the power consumption could be lowered by 40% with  virtualization implementation .

  1. Lower investment (capex) on hardware:

Proper capacity planning could see a drastic reduction in the capital expenditure that we incur on server buying. For instance, by creating a pool across several blades we were able to use the available resources and thus put away the investment proposal that was on my desk. In case we host our applications or use external resources, expenses would come down.

  1. Less maintenance overhead of IT:

Virtualization simplifies server management   as the entire server farm can be managed through a single console. In addition, recurring expenses on AMC and other costs reduce.

  1. Provision of resources on demand:

In a conventional environment, since we dedicate a server for each application, we are at our wit’s end when we have to make available sever resources for any urgent requirement. In a virtualized environment, we can make available additional resources on demand from the pool we create. In additional we can cater to a periodic demand (say month end or year-end processing0 by reducing the resource allocation to any non-critical application and make it available temporarily to the ERP or any mission critical run.

  1. Easier to do patch management and upgrade:

We used to create a clone of a server and apply patches on the original file. If for some reason, the new version did not run, we could revert to the old version within minutes. The same process applied to software version upgrades and this was a great facility which made these tasks easier.

  1. Disaster recovery planning:

Various features exist through which you can recover fast in case of any interruption due to hardware failure. The entire set of programs can be backed up on a different physical server and can be activated quickly.


What is PDA?

PDA (personal digital assistant) is a term for any small mobile hand-held device that provides computing and information storage and retrieval capabilities for personal or business use, often for keeping schedule calendars and address book information handy. The term handheld is a synonym.

What are mashups? Provide an example.

Individual users and entire companies mix and match these software components to create their own customized applications and to share information with others. The resulting software applications are called mashups. The idea is to take different sources and produce a new work that is “greater than” the sum of its parts.

References :


One thought on “CHPTER 5

  1. Haya,

    1) Meaning of virtualization is missing.
    2) Do not use Wikipedia as a source of academic reference.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s