CHAPTER 10

  1. What are three major categories of e-commerce? What do they mean?

e-commerce

E-commerce (e-commerce) or electronic commerce, a subset of  e-business , is the purchasing, selling, and exchanging of goods and services over computer networks (such as the Internet) through which transactions or terms of sale are performed electronically. Contrary to popular belief, e-commerce is not just on the Web. In fact, e-commerce was alive and well in business to business transactions before the Web back in the 70s via EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) through VANs (Value-Added Networks). E-commerce can be broken into four main categories: B2B, B2C, C2B, and C2C.

  • B2B (Business-to-Business)
    Companies doing business with each other such as manufacturers selling to distributors and wholesalers selling to retailers. Pricing is based on the quantity of order and is often negotiable.
  • B2C (Business-to-Consumer)
    Businesses selling to the general public typically through catalogs utilizing shopping cart software. By dollar volume, B2B takes the prize, however, B2C is really what the average Joe has in mind with regards to e-commerce as a whole.

    Having a hard time finding a book? Need to purchase a custom, high-end computer system? How about a first class, all-inclusive trip to a tropical island? With the advent e-commerce, all three things can be purchased literally in minutes without human interaction. Oh how far we’ve come!

  • C2B (Consumer-to-Business)
    A consumer posts his project with a set budget online and within hours companies review the consumer’s requirements and bid on the project. The consumer reviews the bids and selects the company that will complete the project. Elance empowers consumers around the world by providing the meeting ground and platform for such transactions.
  • C2C (Consumer-to-Consumer)
    There are many sites offering free classifieds, auctions, and forums where individuals can buy and sell thanks to online payment systems like PayPal where people can send and receive money online with ease. eBay’s auction service is a great example of where person-to-person transactions take place every day since 1995.

Companies using internal networks to offer their employees products and services online–not necessarily online on the Web–are engaging in B2E (Business-to-Employee) e-commerce.

G2G (Government-to-Government), G2E (Government-to-Employee), G2B (Government-to-Business), B2G (Business-to-Government), G2C (Government-to-Citizen), C2G (Citizen-to-Government) are other forms of e-commerce that involve transactions with the government–from procurement to filing taxes to business registrations to renewing licenses. There are other categories of e-commerce out there, but they tend to be superfluous.

 

  1. What do location-based services mean?

location-based service (LBS) is a software-level service that uses location  data to control features. As such LBS is an information service and has a number of uses in social networking today as information, in entertainment or security, which is accessible with mobile devices through the mobile network and which uses information on the geographical position of the mobile device.

LBS can be used in a variety of contexts, such as health, indoor object search,[5] entertainment,[6] work, personal life, etc.[7]

LBS is critical to many businesses as well as government organizations to drive real insight from data tied to a specific location where activities take place. The spatial patterns that location-related data and services can provide is one of its most powerful and useful aspect where the location is a common denominator in all of these activities and can be leveraged to better understand patterns and relationships.

LBS include services to identify a location[8] of a person or object, such as discovering the nearest banking cash machine or the whereabouts of a friend or employee. LBS include parcel tracking and vehicle tracking services. LBS can include mobile commerce when taking the form of coupons or advertising directed at customers based on their current location. They include personalized weather services and even location-based games. They are an example of telecommunication convergence.

 

Referrence:

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/E-Commerce_and_E-Business/Concepts_and_Definitions

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Types_of_e-commerce

http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-electronic-commerce-definition-types-advantages-disadvantages.html

 

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